C. Credibility - indicate why you are credible to speak on this topic. It may simply be a concern you had and the research you have done, or it may be that you have had first hand experience as a victim or you work with those who are. Give us a reason or two to listen to you speak on this topic.

D. Preview - let the audience know how the speech will progress. If you will be using the Problem-Solution format, briefly describe the problem and then briefly describe the solution you will advocate. If using the Problem - Cause - Solution format, add a reference to the causes as a middle point.

Although distinctive features arose in the eighteenth-century American context, much of the American Enlightenment was continuous with parallel experiences in British and French society.  Four themes recur in both European and American Enlightenment texts: modernization, skepticism, reason and liberty. Modernization means that beliefs and institutions based on absolute moral, religious and political authority (such as the divine right of kings and the Ancien Régime ) will become increasingly eclipsed by those based on science, rationality and religious pluralism.  Many Enlightenment thinkers—especially the French philosophes , such as Voltaire, Rousseau and Diderot—subscribed to some form of skepticism, doubting appeals to miraculous, transcendent and supernatural forces that potentially limit the scope of individual choice and reason.  Reason that is universally shared and definitive of the human nature also became a dominant theme in Enlightenment thinkers’ writings, particularly Immanuel Kant’s “What is Enlightenment?” and his Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals .  The fourth theme, liberty and rights assumed a central place in theories of political association, specifically as limits state authority originating prior to the advent of states (that is, in a state of nature) and manifesting in social contracts , especially in John Locke’s Second Treatise on Civil Government and Thomas Jefferson’s drafts of the Declaration of Independence .  


Two Sneeches - B-CauseTwo Sneeches - B-CauseTwo Sneeches - B-CauseTwo Sneeches - B-Cause

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