Plasmodium is a member of the family Plasmodiidae , order Haemosporidia and phylum Apicomplexa which, along with dinoflagellates and ciliates , make up the taxonomic group Alveolata . [5]

In summary, the malaria parasites undergoes three distinct asexual replicative stages (exoerythrocytic schizogony, blood stage schizogony, and sporogony) resulting in the production of invasive forms (merozoites and sporozoites). A sexual reproduction occurs with the switch from vertebrate to invertebrate host and leads to the invasive ookinete. All invasive stages are characterized by the apical organelles typical of apicomplexan species. The invasive stages differ in regards to the types of cells or tissues they invade and their motility. Following the successful invasion, a few of these invasive forms will undergo a high level of proliferation to establish the infection in the new host. (See Rosenberg, 2008 for a discussion of the numbers.)

Modern analysis of the origins of malaria usually relies on genetic evidence – that is, comparison between sequences of DNA between malaria from different regions and even different species, which can give clues as to how the parasite has changed and evolved over time. However, genetic traces of the path of malaria can also be uncovered from looking at malaria’s hosts, including human populations. For example, the Duffy negative group of mutations, mentioned earlier, provides almost or even complete protection against P. vivax . Given the high prevalence of these mutations in West and Central African populations (95-99% in some places!), some scientists have considered this evidence that P. vivax has co-evolved with humans in these regions for thousands of years, and that therefore the parasite might have evolved here 3 .

P. vivax and P. ovale can live in the liver for a long time. A person can look well, but still have the Plasmodium in the liver. This is called a dormant phase . Weeks or months later, the Plasmodium can leave the liver to the blood, and the person will get sick again.

Headaches can be divided into two categories: primary headaches and secondary headaches. Migraine headaches, tension headaches,...

Malaria in pregnant women is an important cause of stillbirths , infant mortality , abortion and low birth weight , [20] particularly in P. falciparum infection, but also with P. vivax . [21]

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